Silent No More
"I do no see the slightest chance of forcing a superpower like the Soviet Union to accept our demands" - Nahum Goldmann, a leading advocate for "quiet diplomacy." (Nahum Goldmann: Statesman Without a State)
Until 1964, the sporadic efforts on behalf of Soviet Jewry were based on "quiet diplomacy". Jewish leadership, especially in the orthodox movement, believed confrontational tactics would only make the situation worse for Soviet Jews. Protest against Soviet antisemitism was essentially non-existent. This changed when the leaders of 24 Jewish organizations assembled the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry (AJCSJ), set for April 5th through 6th, 1964.
"...it immediately became apparent that this new body [the AJCSJ] would exist mostly on paper. With no budget or permanent staff, it was confined to irregular and limited activities, like meeting with government officials or sponsoring an occasional demonstration." - Yossi Klein Halevi in the article Jacob Birnbaum and the Struggle for Soviet Jewry
Jacob Birnbaum, founder of the Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry, in his apartment which served as headquarters of the organization.
Although the conference eventually sponsored two large rallies - one in Washington D.C. and one at Madison Square Garden, to grassroots organizers, the AJCSJ was a toothless and fumbling bureaucracy.